TEACHING THEEXPRESSIONS OF NECCESSITY BY USING GAMES

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

In this chapter, (1) background, (2) problems,(3) objectives, (4) sicnificance of the study, (5) hypothesis, (6) criteria for testing the hypothesis are presented.

1.1  Background

In learning English, besides language skills, language elements such as grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation are important for the SMP students to learn of their language skills.

Studying grammar enables the students to improve their ability in studying language skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. Besides, there are some complaints from teachers that the students’ ability in grammar is very low. However, grammar is really important to develop the students’communicative skills.

Manser (1995:461) comments that grammar is the rules for joining words into sentences. Grammar is one of the language elements that plays a very important role. It is obvious that by having a good command of grammar, the students was have good ability in language skills.

The teacher of English should find the effective ways, which get the students to practice grammatical items through the use of interactive such as games and quizzes.

There are three reasons why games are useful to students and teachers. According to Grambs and Carr (1979: 130). Firstly, games break classroom routines in a pleasant way. Secondly, games provide an opportunities to see familiar materials in a new relationship, and the last reason, the games are excellent motivation for all students for the kind of learning that requires drill. The fact that the students become interest and competitive in the game acts to balance their reaction against drills.

One of the methods is by using games. Games are useful for teaching and learning English as a foreign language. The purposes of using games are: (1) physical activities: to release physical and nervous tension and to promote mental alertness by breaking a routine of drill, (2) enjoyment: to create a climate of fun and interest that was help the students look forward to English lesson, (3) cultural content: to use games as a way of revealing general patterns of cultural that should add the students’ grasp of the way of English speaking peoples, (4) language learning: to serve as an  adjunct to the techniques of teaching grammar and sound system of the new language (Saleh, 1992: 73). In other words, games can motivate the students to learn English more easily.

By seeing the above introduction, it is interesting to investigate the students’ ability in studying the expression of necessity by using game. The objects of investigation were the eighth grade students at SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

For this reason, it is interesting to do a research entitled “TEACHING THE EXPRESSIONS OF NECESSITY BY USING GAME TO THE EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMP N 24 PALEMBANG”.

1.2  Problems

This study dealt with the teaching the expressions of necessity by using game to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

1.2.1 Limitation of the Problem

According to Hornby (1995: 992), problem is a question to be answered or solved. Through the research, the researcher limits the subject of this investigation to only the eighth grade students of SMP. N 24 Palembang focuses on the simple past tense by the expressions of necessity game.

1.2.2 Formulation of the Problem

The problem of this study is formulated in the following question: “Is it effective to teach expression of necessity by using game to the eighth grade students of  SMP. N. 24 Palembang?”

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of teaching expressions of necessity by using game to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

1.4 The Significance of the Study

The significance of the study in this research is for the teachers, for the students, for the other researchers, and for the writer himself.

1) To the Teachers of English

  • Guide and help teachers of English who want to teach expressions of necessity.
  • Be useful in order that the teaching English especially in teaching expressions of necessity would be easier.
  • Increase the students’ interest in learning expressions of necessity.

2) To the Students

  • Increase the students’ knowledge and ability in mastering expressions of necessity in English.

3) To Other Researchers

  • The result of study will be guidance to do an investigation in the next time.

4) To the Writer Himself

  • Enlarge knowledge and experience in teaching expressions of necessity.

1.5 Hypothesis

   There are two hypotheses of this study, the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis:

1)            Null hypothesis (Ho)                  : It is not effective to teach the expressions of necessity by using game to the   eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

2)            Alternative hypothesis (Ha)       : It is effective to teach the expressions of necessity by using game to the  eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

1.6 Criteria for Testing the Hypothesis

            To the test hypothesis, the t-observation was compared with the t-table. The t-obtain is the result of the matched t-test calculation between the students’ scores in the pre-test and those in the post-test. The t-table is the critical value of the t-obtained in the distribution table. The number of sample is 72 and the degree of freedom (df) = 72 – 2 = 70 and significance level is 5%. If the t-obtained is greater than or equal to the t-table, the Ho was rejected and Ha was accepted. If the t-obtain is less than the t-table, Ho was accepted and Ha was rejected. Based on the table of one-tailed test, the value of t-table in this research is 2.000. So, Ha was accepted if the value of the t-obtained is more than 2.000.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

This chapter deals with the reviews of related literature. The reviews come under the following headings: (1) the concept of teaching, (2) expressions of necessity, (3) the concept of game, (4) the technique of applying game, (5) the procedures of teaching the expressions of necessity by using game and (6) related previous study.

2.1 Concept of Teaching

Teaching is means causing (somebody) to know or able to do something or to give somebody the knowledge, skill, etc. It is an art because it relies on “the teacher’s creative provision of the best possible learning environment for his/her students” (Newton, 1992:11). It is a science since it is a system, an ordered set of ideas and methods used by the teacher in doing his/her main jobs: planning a lesson, implements the plan in the classroom, and evaluating the outcome of the activities.” He also states that there are better concepts of teaching characteristics by their activities, performance by outstanding teacher of English as a foreign language as follows:

1)      Teaching is carried out on the basis of specified learning objectives: (1) specific behavioral objectives identifying the exact feature(s) the students are to learn and use, and (2) expressive objectives which are closely connected with communicative competence (Chastain, 1980:9)

2)      Teaching involves selecting and grading materials by observing the principles of the few before the many.

3)      Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the students to learn, setting conditions for learning.

4)      Teaching is making an effort to help the students to accomplish.

5)      Teaching is trying to keep the student’s motivation high by using a variety of short activities.

6)      Teaching is an interactive process between the teacher and students and among students themselves. Teaching is not explaining everything by an all-knowing teacher, but asking probing questions, giving the students time to think and respond so that classroom interaction may come enlightening for all concerned (Maurice, 1987:11)

7)      Teaching makes use of the concept of comparative learning, a strategy in the classroom used to increase motivation and attention, to help the students develop a positive image of self and others, to provide a vehicle for critical thinking and problem solving, and encourage collaborative social skills, as depicted in the following Chinese proverb:

Tell me, and I’ll forget

Show me, and I’ll remember

Involve me, and I’ll learn

(Christison, 1990:6)

8)      Teaching is learner-centered and humanistic, that is, it is the teacher who serves as a guide in the learning process, but it is the students who assume some responsibility for how much learning taken place (Larsen-Freeman, 1987:8)

9)      Teaching is accompanied to know the results of teaching-learning activities because evaluation is a necessary component of all activities, especially in TEFL, whose main objective is to monitor, to help, and to grade the student’s use of the language.

2.2 Expressions of Necessity

            In Manser (1995:146), the word “expression” means a feeling shown with acting or showing one’s feeling. Ostler (1986:192) states that the word “expression” is expressing of wording or expressive quality.

While the word “necessity” is something that must be done (Ostler, 1986:358). The expressions of necessity is a feeling shown to someone or something that must be done.

According to Azar (1992:108), there are four kinds of expressions of necessity, There are as follows:

1)       “Have to”

“Have to” is used much more frequently than “must” in everyday speech and writing.

Example: – Tell me something you have to do every day.

2)      “Have got to”

“Have got to” is generally used only in informal speech and writing.

Example: – Tell me something you have got to do tonight.

3)      “Must”

“Must” is used much less frequently than “have to” in everyday speech and writing. “Must” is a “strong” word.

Example: – Tell me something very important that you must do today.

4)      “Ought to”

“Ought to” is usually not used in the negative.

Example: – You ought to study at the library.

2.3 The Concept of Card Games

            The word “game” means a form of play, especially with rules (Hornby, 1987:353). According to Saleh (1996:56), a game is a kind of play that can be used to practice certain language features at certain phases in the learning process in order to develop communication skill. The games is meant by having an educational value with goes beyond the foreign language lesson in the classroom, and encourage the students to communicate in studying the target language, in this case, English.

A game is an activity with rules, a goal and on element of fun. There are two kinds of game: Competitive game, in which players or teams race to be the first to reach the goal, and Co-operative game. In which players or teams work together toward a common goal (Hadfield, 1984:4).

In this research, the activity is mainly of later kinds (second kinds) as the co-operative element, it means that all the students should be active in each of the group and try to be the first to reach the goal. The emphasis in the game as on successful communications, besides that the teacher should find the difficulties of the students in using grammar in the students communication.

2.4 The Techniques of Applying Games

The game has variety of techniques, some of them are: (1) guessing games, (2) search games, and (3) matching games (Hadfield, 1982: 4).

1) Guessing Games

Guessing games are familiar variant on this principle. One player with the information deliberately with hold it while others guess what it might be.

2) Search Games

Search games are familiar variant, involving the whole class. In these games everyone in the class has one place of information player must obtain all or a large a mount of the information available to full in a questionnaire or to solve a problem.

3) Matching Games

Matching games are based on a different principle, but also involve a transfer of information. These game involve matching identical pairs of cards or pictures and may be played as a whole class activity, where everyone must circulate until they find a partner with the same card or picture: or as a pair work or small group activity, where players must choose picture or cards from a selection to match those chosen by their partner from the same selection: or as a card game on the “snap” principle (Hadfield, 1984:4).

2.5 The Procedures of Teaching the Expression of Necessity by Using Game

The material that would be presented is expressions of necessity. In teaching learning activities always proceed through a format which consists of the major components (three stages techniques). They are pre-activities, while activities, and post-activities (Saleh, 1997:24).

1.) Pre-Activities

The teacher does the following things:

–          Greetings the students.

–          Asking the students about the last lesson.

–          Asking the students some questions related to the sub-theme.

2.) While- activities

The teacher does the following things:

–          The teacher presents the instruction of how to find out the things around the school.

–          The teacher shows the examples of things around the school.

–          The teacher explains the definition expressions of necessity and gives examples.

–          The teacher explains the using of “have to”, “have got to”, “must”, “ought to” and gives examples.

–          The students practice their expressions of necessity of things out of the class.

–          The teacher asks the students some questions related to the expressions necessity in the games activities.

–          The teacher gives written exercises to the students.

3.) Post-activities
The teacher does the following things:

–          Asks the students to sum up the lesson.

–          Giving the chance to the students to have some question about the lesson.

–          The students make the summary about the lesson.

2.6 Related Previous Study

            In this part, the writer describe the related previous study to the topic studied were written by Abdul Gofar.DN.

The title of  Abdul Gofar’s thesis is “The First Year Students’ Difficulties in the Use of the Words “Need” and “Necessary” at SMA Nuru Iman Palembang”. The main purpose of this research was to find out the kinds of difficulties encountered by the first year students of SMA Nurul Iman Palembang in the use of the words “need” and “necessery”.

The population for this research was 42 students of SMA Nurul Iman Palembang. The sample was 42 students. To collect the data, the writer applied the writen test and questionnaire. He analyzed the data by using persentage analysis. The result was described using the discriptive method in order to present the data from the research, which were collected and tabulated.

There are some similarities and some differences between previous study and this study, but the important thing is the use of words necessary. The differences are 1) location of the research, 2) the samples of the research, 3) the objectives, 4) method of the study, and 5) technique for analyzing the data.

Based on the result of the test, the students average score was 32.6 the predicate “poor”, the students hihest score was 65 with the predicate “moderate” and the lowest one was 10 with the predicate “very poor”. Based on the result of the questionnaire, the students’ difficulties were caused by the fact that the students were weak in vocabulary. Beside the percentage of the scores of the students’ difficulties in the use of the word “Need” were: (1) 22.36% as a verb, (2) 21.1% as a noun, and 10.46% as an auxilary. For the percentage of students’ difficulties in the use of the word “Necessary” were: (1) 40.88% as an adjective, (2) 32.6% as a noun, and (3) 44.4% as a verb. The total scores of the students’ difficulties in the use of the words “Need” and “Necessary” were 57.26%.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH PROCEDURE

In this chapter: (1) method of research, (2) operational definitions, (3) population and sample, (4) technique for collecting data, and (5) technique for analyzing the data.

3.1 Method of Research

            In doing this research, the true experimental design was applied throught the randomized posttest-only control group design. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:250). The posttest-only control group design involves two groups, both a which are formed by random assignment. One group receives the experimentel treatment while the other does not, and then both groups are posttested on the dependent variable. A diagram of this design is as follows:

Treatment Group         R         T1           X1          T2

Control Group             R         T1         X2        T2

In which :

R = Randomization

T1 = Pretest

T2 = Posttest

X1 = Teaching by Using Games

X2 = Teaching without Using Games

The following are the steps to be taken in doing the research:

  1. defining the objectives in clear terms;
  2. designing the approach by determining
  • population and sample
  • technique for collecting the data
  • technique for analyzing the data
  1. matching the two groups through the posttest;
  2. teaching to both groups, with and without using games;
  3. collecting the data through the posttest;
  4. analyzing the data;
  5. drawing conclusionsi ;
  6. proposing suggestions;
  7. reporting the result;

3.2 Operational Definitions

Operational definitions of some key words are important to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation.  The key words are teaching, expressions necessity, and game.

 

3.2.1 Teaching

Teaching means the activities of educating or instructing; a teacher’s activities in facilitating the students to learn or to get knowledge or skills.

3.2.2 Expressions of Neccesity

The expression of necessity is a feeling shown to someone or something that must be to be done.

3.2.3 Game

The games are activities done by having an educational value that goes beyond the English lesson in the classroom, and encourage the students to communicate in studying English.

3.3 Population and Sample

3.3.1 Population

According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:69), population is a group of interest to the researcher; a group to whom the researcher would like to generalize the result of the study.

The population of this study was taken from the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.  There were five classes that consisted of  200 students, so the total number of population was 200. Table I below presents the population of this study.

TABLE 1

THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY

No

Class

Male

Female

Total

1

VIII.1

20

22

42

2

VIII.2

22

21

43

3

VIII.3

15

21

36

4

VIII.4

17

19

36

5

VIII.5

21

22

43

Total

95

105

200

(Source: SMP Negeri 24 Palembang 2009/2010)

 

3.3.2 Sample

According to Richards, et al (1992:321), sample is any group of individuals which is selected to represent a population.  Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:87) state that “A sample is a group of individuals who (conveniently) are available to study.” The sample of the study was taken through cluster random sampling. To take the sample, the writer wrote names of the five classes in five small pieces of paper and then rolled them randomly. Finally, the writer got VIII.3 as the treatment  group and VIII.4 as the control group as the sample.

TABLE 2

THE SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

No

Class

Male

Female

Total

1

Treatment Group

15

21

36

2

Experimental Group

17

19

36

Total

32

40

72

(Source: SMP Negeri 24 Palembang 2009/2010)

 

3.4 Technique for Collecting Data

            In this research, a written test was used to collect data. The test was given twice as pre-test and post-test. The pre-test was given to make the two groups before the treatment and the post-test was given after the treatment. Before giving the test to the sample students the test should be tried out to find out its validity and reliability. In this case, the test was test to class VIII.3 of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang in order to know whether the test is valid and reliable before the revised test is given to the sample students.

3.4.1 Validity

            Validity is the most important variable in judging the adequacy of a measurement instrument. Validity refers to the extent to which the results of an evaluation procedure serve the particular uses for which they are intended. Thus, the validity of a test is the extent to which the test measures what is intended to measure. Basically, validity is always concerned with the specific use to be made of the results and with the truthfulness of our proposed interpretations. In order to have a high degree of content validity, the writer presents the contents in the table of test specification.

TABLE 3

TEST SPECIFICATION

Objective

Indicator

Materials

Total Items

Types of Test

To be able to use the forms of expressions of necessity
  • The students are able to choose the correct expressions of necessity in a sentence.
  • The students are able to complete the sentences by using have to, have got to, must, ought to
Expressions of necessity1) have to2) have got to

3) must

4) ought to

Expressions of necessity

1) have to

2) have got to

3) must

4) ought to

1, 4, 10, 11

2, 3, 5,

7, 8, 9, 13

6, 12, 14, 15

3

5

1, 4

2

Multiple choise

Essay

3.4.2 Reliability

            Reliability refers to the consistency of test score. That is, how consistent test scores or other evaluation results are from one measurement to another. Reliability measures provide an estimate of how much variation we might expect under different conditions. The reliability of test scores is typically reported by means of a reliability coefficient or the standard error of measurement.

In this research, the writer used internal consistency method to evaluate the reliability of the test. The internal reliability is estimated through a Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient. It is statistical formula used as one estimate of the reliability of the test, which is based on number of items test, the mean score and its standard deviation. The following is the Kuder-Richardson 21 (KR-21) formula (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1993:149). The value of KR-21 should be > 0.70.

Reliability Coefficient (KR 21) =

SD       =

Where:

K         = Number of Items in Test

M         = Means of the Test Score

SD       = Standard Deviation of the Test Scores

Σx2       = Sum Square of Students Score

3.5 Technique for Analyzing the Data

There were two kinds of the data analize in this study: the data of  pre-test and post-test scores (Sugiono, 2009:80). The formula is as follows:

The formula of  t-test is:

Where:

t           =    the value by which the statistical, significant differences between two means will be judged

X1        =    the means score of experimental group

X2           =     the means score of control group

N1           =     the number of the experimental group

N2           =     the number of the control group

S12          =     the variance score of experimental group

S22          =   the variance score of control group

TABLE 4

THE STUDENTS’ SCORE OF THE TEST TRY – OUT OF INSTRUMENT

Number of Subject

Number of Students Correct Answer

Students Individual Scores (X)

Score Square (X)

1

12

6.0

36

2

15

7.5

56.25

3

14

7.0

64

4

17

8.5

72.25

5

16

8.0

64

6

13

6.5

42.25

7

9

4.5

20.25

8

8

4.0

16

9

12

6.0

36

10

13

6.5

42.25

11

14

7.0

49

12

8

4.0

16

13

13

6.5

42.25

14

12

6.0

36

15

14

7.0

49

16

10

5.0

25

17

9

4.5

20.25

18

9

4.5

20.25

19

12

6.0

36

20

11

5.5

30.25

21

15

7.5

56.25

22

13

6.5

42.25

23

16

8.0

64

24

17

8.5

72.25

25

14

7.0

49

26

12

6.0

36

27

10

5.0

25

28

11

5.5

30.25

29

13

6.5

42.25

30

17

8.5

72.25

31

16

8.0

64

32

18

9.0

81

33

16

8.0

64

34

17

8.5

72.25

35

11

5.5

30.25

36

9

4.5

20.25

37

8

4.0

16

Total

 

235

1595.5

S =

S =

S =  =

S =  =

S = 6.64

M =  =

M = 6.35

KR 21 =

KR 21 =

=

= 1.05  = 1.05

KR 21 = 0.95

Based on the result above the test materials are reliable.

CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION

 

In this chapter, findings and interpretation are presented.

4.1 Findings

In this study, the findings were: (1) the students’ pre – test score in the treatment and the control group, (2) the students post – test score in the treatment and the control group, and (3) the results of t – test calculation between the students’ pre – test and post – test score in treatment and control group.

4.1.1 The Students’ Pre – Test Score in the Treatment and Control Groups.

Before the experiment was conducted, the students were given a pre – test in treatment and control group and then took their scores. After the scores had been tabulated, the writer found that the average score of the students who were taught expressions of necessity in the treatment group was 5.94. The lowest score was 3.5 that were reached by two students and the highest one was 7.5 in which only five students got it.

On the other hand, the mean of the test score or average in the control group was 4.78. The lowest score was 3.0 that were reached by four students and the highest one was 7.0 in which one student got it. In the treatment and control group, the students scores were various and some of them still had low scores.

TABLE 5

The Students’ Scores in the Pre-Test of the Treatment and Control Groups

No

Items

Treatment

Control

X

X

X

X

01

20

6.0

36

5.0

25

02

20

7.5

56.25

4.5

20.25

03

20

5.0

25

7.0

49

04

20

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

05

20

7.0

49

4.5

20.25

06

20

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

07

20

4.5

20.25

6.0

36

08

20

3.5

12.25

3.5

12.25

09

20

6.0

36

6.0

36

10

20

6.0

36

5.0

25

11

20

6.5

42.25

5.5

30.25

12

20

4.5

20.25

4.0

16

13

20

5.5

30.25

3.5

12.25

14

20

5.5

30.25

3.0

9

15

20

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

16

20

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

17

20

7.5

56.25

4.5

20.25

18

20

5.5

30.25

6.0

36

19

20

6.0

36

5.5

30.25

20

20

5.5

30.25

5.5

30.25

21

20

7.0

49

6.0

36

22

20

5.5

30.25

4.0

16

23

20

5.5

30.25

5.0

25

24

20

6.5

42.25

4.5

20.25

25

20

7.5

56.25

5.0

25

26

20

4.5

20.25

5.5

30.25

27

20

3.5

12.25

4.0

16

28

20

6.0

36

6.0

36

29

20

6.5

42.25

3.0

9

30

20

7.5

56.25

5.0

25

31

20

5.5

30.25

4.5

20.25

32

20

5.5

30.25

3.0

9

33

20

4.5

20.25

4.5

20.25

34

20

6.5

42.25

4.0

16

35

20

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

36

20

7.5

56.25

3.0

9

 

Table 5 (continued)

   

 = 214

= 1312

 = 172

 = 857

   

 = 5.94

 = 4.78

 

4.1.2 The Students Post-Test Score in the Treatment and Control Group

The test items in the post – test were exactly the same as ones that were given in the pre – test. The average score of the students in treatment group was 7.44. It was found out that the lowest students’ score in the treatment was 6.0 reached by only one student and the highest one was 9.0 which were reached by five students.

In control group, the average score of the students was 5.56. The lowest score was 3.5 reached by two students. The highest score was 7.5 which were reached by only one student. The test was given around 20 items in the forms of multiple choice and essay test. The score range was around 0 – 10. The score obtained by dividing the numbers of correct answer with 2. The pre-test would give to the 36 students of control group and 36 students of treatment group. The list of the students post – test score in the treatment and the control group are shown in table 5.

TABLE 6

The Students Post – Test Score in the Treatment and Control Groups

No

Treatment

Control

No. of Correct Answer

Students Individuals Scores

No. of Correct Answer

Students Individuals Scores

01

13

6.5

12

6.0

02

18

9.0

11

5.5

03

14

7.0

15

7.5

04

15

7.5

14

7.0

Table 6 (continued)

05

17

8.5

10

5.0

06

16

8.0

12

6.0

07

14

7.0

13

6.5

08

13

6.5

9

4.5

09

14

7.0

13

6.5

10

15

7.5

12

6.0

11

16

8.0

13

6.5

12

13

6.5

10

5.0

13

15

7.5

10

5.0

14

14

7.0

9

4.5

15

15

7.5

10

5.0

16

14

7.0

13

6.5

17

17

8.5

11

5.5

18

14

7.0

13

6.5

19

15

7.5

12

6.0

20

14

7.0

12

6.0

21

18

9.0

14

7.0

22

13

6.5

11

5.5

23

14

7.0

12

6.0

24

16

8.0

10

5.0

25

18

9.0

11

5.5

26

13

6.5

12

6.0

27

12

6.0

10

5.0

28

15

7.5

13

6.5

29

16

8.0

7

3.5

30

18

9.0

11

5.5

31

13

6.5

10

5.0

32

14

7.0

7

3.5

33

13

6.5

10

5.0

34

15

7.5

10

5.0

35

14

7.0

10

5.0

36

18

9.0

8

4.0

 = 268

 

 = 200

 = 7.44

 

 = 5.56

Based on the explanation above, the writer concluded that there were differences between the students’ scores in the pre – test and post – test in treatment and control group.

Before the experiment was conducted, both of the groups of students, in treatment and control group, were given a pre – test. In the treatment group, a treatment was used. After treatment, a post – test was given to the students. On the other hand, in control group the writer did not use treatment. Only pre – test and post – test without a treatment were given.

Furthermore, it was found that the means of students score in both of group increased. In the treatment group, the mean of the students score in pre – test was 5.94 and in the post – test was 7.44. In the control group, the mean of students score in the pre – test was 4.78 and in the post – test was 5.56.

 

4.1.3 The Result of T – Test Calculation between the Students Scores In Treatment and Control Groups

            Based on the result of pre – test and post – test in the treatment and the control group, the writer calculated the t – test to find out whether or not it was teach expressions of necessity by using games to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

It was found that the result of t – test (4.83) was higher than the critical value (2.000). Meanwhile, the significance level with 72 df was 5 %. Table 7 below shows the calculation of t – test involving the pre – test and post – test data in treatment and control group.

TABLE 7

The Comparison Scores between Pre – Test and Post – Test of  Treatment and Control Groups

No

Treatment Group

Control Group

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

01

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

6.0

36

5.0

25

02

9.0

81

7.5

56.25

5.5

30.25

4.5

20.25

03

7.0

49

5.0

25

7.5

56.25

7.0

49

04

7.5

56.25

6.5

42.25

7.0

49

6.0

36

05

8.5

72.25

7.0

49

5.0

25

4.5

20.25

06

8.0

64

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

5.0

25

07

7.0

49

4.5

20.25

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

08

6.5

42.25

3.5

12.25

4.5

20.25

3.5

12.25

09

7.0

49

6.0

36

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

10

7.5

56.25

6.0

36

6.0

36

5.0

25

11

8.0

64

6.5

42.25

6.5

42.25

5.5

30.25

12

6.5

42.25

4.5

20.25

5.0

25

4.0

16

13

7.5

56.25

5.5

30.25

5.0

25

3.5

12.25

14

7.0

49

5.5

30.25

4.5

20.25

3.0

9

15

7.5

56.25

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

5.0

25

16

7.0

49

6.5

42.25

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

17

8.5

72.25

7.5

56.25

5.5

30.25

4.5

20.25

18

7.0

49

5.5

30.25

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

19

7.5

56.25

6.0

36

6.0

36

5.5

30.25

20

7.0

49

5.5

30.25

6.0

36

5.5

30.25

21

9.0

81

7.0

49

7.0

49

6.0

36

22

6.5

42.25

5.5

30.25

5.5

30.25

4.0

16

23

7.0

49

5.5

30.25

6.0

36

5.0

25

24

8.0

64

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

4.5

20.25

25

9.0

81

7.5

56.25

5.5

30.25

5.0

25

26

6.5

42.25

4.5

20.25

6.0

36

5.5

30.25

27

6.0

36

3.5

12.25

5.0

25

4.0

16

28

7.5

56.25

6.0

36

6.5

42.25

6.0

36

29

8.0

64

6.5

42.25

3.5

12.25

3.0

9

30

9.0

81

7.5

56.25

5.5

30.25

5.0

25

31

6.5

42.25

5.5

30.25

5.0

25

4.5

20.25

32

7.0

49

5.5

30.25

3.5

12.25

3.0

9

33

6.5

42.25

4.5

20.25

5.0

25

4.5

20.25

34

7.5

56.25

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

4.0

16

35

7.0

49

6.5

42.25

5.0

25

5.0

25

Table 7 (continued)

 

36

9.0

81

7.5

56.25

4.0

16

3.0

9

 = 268

 = 2021

 = 214

= 1312

 = 200

 = 1142

 = 172

= 857

 = 7.44

 = 5.94

 = 5.56

= 4.78

S     =

=

=

=

=  = 0.74

S    =

=

=

=

=  = 0.88

t           =

=

=

=

=  = 9.4

Level of significance 5 %

t – table           = df (n + n– 2)

= df (36 + 36 – 2)

= df (72 – 2)

= df (70)

= 2.000

t – obtained     > t – table

9.4                   > 2.000

From the result of t-test calculation, it was found that the value of t was 9.4 and the value of t-table at significance level of 5% was 2.000 with the degree of freedom (df) = 72. The result of t-obtained (9.4) indicates that Ho is rejected and consequently the Ha is accepted. In other words, it is effective to teach the expressions of necessity by using games to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang.

4.2. Interpretation.

            As it is described above, it was found that after doing this research by using games in teaching the expressions of necessity, it was assumed that the students who were taught expressions of necessity by using games were better than the students who did not use games. After the treatment, the students’ achievement in expressions of necessity improved. This condition means that teaching the expressions of necessity by using games can improve their grammar.

Furthermore, the result of treatment showed that there was a difference analysis on the treatment and control group. The mean difference of two groups was 7.44 – 5.56 = 1.88. The result of t – test calculation showed that t – obtained was higher than t – table. The t – obtained was 9.4, while t – table was 2.000 (at the significance level 5 % in two tailed testing and df = 72). It means that there was a significant difference in improving expressions of necessity achievement between the students who were taught by using games and those who were not.

Based on the results of the study, the null hypothesis was rejected and automatically the alternative hypothesis was accepted. This indicates that it was effective to teach the expressions of necessity by using games to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang. Finally, games can be used as one of the means in teaching the expressions of necessity at the junior hight school.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

 

In this chapter, the conclusions and suggestions are presented based on what has been discussed in the previous chapter.

5.1 Conclusions

Based on the discussion of the study, it can be concluded that games is effective in teaching the expressions of necessity to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 24 Palembang. It can be seen from the result of the study that was significantly difference between the mean scores in treatment and control group. The differences of scores in treatment and control group were verified through t – test. According to this analysis, as described earlier, it was found that the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected since the result of the calculation of the t – test was higher than the critical value. The average score of the pre – test in the treatment group was 5.94 and in the control group was 4.78. The average score of students post – test score in the treatment group was 7.44 and in the control group was 5.56. The result of t – test was 9.4. It was in fact higher than 2.000. Furthermore, it can be concluded the games as one of the effective techniques can increase the students English Learning achievement, especially in learning expressions of necessity.

 

 

 

5.2. Suggestions

            Some suggestions are dedicated to English teachers and students.

5.2.1 Teacher of English

            The teacher of English should:

1)      Motivate to study at home or outside the school so that it can improve the students understanding of the lessons.

2)      Give more exercises in the form of drills and practice in order that the students become familiar with expressiond of necessity.

3)      Create more relaxed atmosphere in teaching English grammar to avoid the students bore and make them interest in studying English

5.2.2 Students

            The students should:

1)      Have books to support the learning activities.

2)      Listen carefully when the teacher explains the material of the structure especially in expressions of necessity.

3)      Improve themselves in learning English and they should ask teacher if they do not understand.

4)      Be the active students in the learning activity. For example; they are active in asking and answering the question.

By andhiecka

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