JARGON

Jargon is terminology which has been especially defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, or group. One current or modern definition of jargon is “an outlandish, technical language of a particular profession, group, or trade.” Jargon is the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest: lawyers, computer programmers, criminals, etc. All have specialized terms and expressions that they use, many of which may not be comprehensible to the outsider. They may also use familiar words with different meanings as well as abbreviations, acronyms etc.

Examples:

  • An example of jargon in the medical profession:

agonal– used to describe a major negative change in a person’s condition, usually preceding immediate death.

  • Examples of computer/internet jargon:
    ~BTW -By The Way
    ~CYA – See You Around
    ~FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions
    ~HTH – Hope This Helps
    ~IMHO – In My Humble Opinion
    ~MOTD – Message Of The Day

 

Grammatical meaning

Grammatical meaning is the meaning of a word by reference to its function within a sentence rather than to a world outside the sentence. Some meanings attach to words. These are dictionary meanings. And some meanings, called grammatical meanings, attach to the signals of grammar. The form a word takes may have grammatical meaning. In English, –s or –es added to a noun means “plural” or “more than one.” A mashita ending on a Japanese verb means “past tense”.  Word order may have grammatical meaning. Grammatical meaning – the meaning of a word that depends on its role in a sentence; varies with inflectional form

Examples:

  • My mother goes to the market and my father goes to the place where people play gambling.

 

Cultural Meaning

Culture meaning generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance. Cultures can be “understood as systems of symbols and meanings that even their creators contest, that lack fixed boundaries, that are constantly in flux, and that interact and compete with one another”.

Examples:

  • I feel green   ( I feel sad)

 

 

Connotative

Connotation meaning is the aspect of meaning added to the denotation of a word it relates to the association that a word has above its denotation. The connotative meaning differs from one society to another. It is culturally-bound. Linguistically speaking, it is significant the associations that a word carries for whole linguistics community, or at least a group within a linguistic community. Two points need explain while talking about connotation. The 1st point connotation is far more intermediate than denotation on one hand. Connotation may be subject to variable exchange from generation to the next. Connotation may be rather subjective and not shared in the same way by all speakers of a language. Our individual experience of language and its relation to the world is to some extent unique and idiosyncratic. Connotation is not stable. The 2nd point is the extent to which we relate the lexeme itself rather than to the entity that a lexeme denotes. The connotation of a word to us must reflect our experience of the entity to which the word refers and to the place this entity has in our belief system. Connotative involves the colloquial definition, connecting the emotions it evokes in the reader to the literal meaning.

Examples:

  •    The connotation is a symbol of love and affection, not in the way of a rose, but a symbol of true love.
  •   The connotation is that it is a symbol of passion and love – this is what the rose represent

 

Denotative

          Denotative meaning is sometimes called “cognitive meaning” which is the aspects of meaning which related between the lexemes and the external world, i.e. persons, things, places, properties, processes and activities, external to the language system. Denotation meaning: denotation represents the real properties of real being (how the thing represented is described).Denotative meaning describes things as they exist in the real world (physically existence). In denotation, we can’t talk about object that has no existence (3aycha 9andisha, Bololo

Examples:

  • Denotative meaning
    Lexeme External World
    girl (human being, female, young)
  • the words “kill” and “slaughter.” While they share the same literal, dictionary definition (same denotation), “slaughter” often evokes more negative feelings than “kill,” giving it a negative connotation.
  •   The denotation of this example is a red rose with a green stem.
  •   The denotation is a brown cross

 

Aesthetics

Aesthetics or esthetics (also spelled aesthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensory-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[1] More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as “critical reflection on art, culture and nature.”[2][3] Aesthetics is a sub discipline of axiology, a branch of philosophy, and is closely associated with the philosophy of art.[4] Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world.[5] Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of art. The traditional interest in beauty itself broadened, in the eighteenth century, to include the sublime, and since 1950 or so the number of pure aesthetic concepts discussed in the literature has expanded even more. Traditionally, the philosophy of art concentrated on its definition, but recently this has not been the focus, with careful analyses of aspects of art largely replacing it. Philosophical aesthetics is here considered to center on these latter-day developments. Thus, after a survey of ideas about beauty and related concepts, questions about the  value of aesthetic experience and the variety of aesthetic attitudes will be addressed, before turning to matters which separate art from pure aesthetics, notably the presence of intention. That will lead to a survey of some of the main definitions of art which have been proposed, together with an account of the recent ?de-definition? period. The concepts of expression, representation, and the nature of art objects will then be covered.

Collocation

Within the area of corpus linguistics, collocation is defined as a sequence of words or terms which co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. Collocation comprises the restrictions on how words can be used together, for example which prepositions are used with particular verbs, or which verbs and nouns are used together. Collocations are examples of lexical units. Collocations should not be confused with idioms. Collocation extraction is a task that extracts collocations automatically from a corpus-using computer in computational linguistics.

 

 

By andhiecka

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